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MDPV Powder (Methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is a stimulant of the cathinone class which acts as a Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It was first developed in the 1960s by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim. Buy MDPV
Its activity at the dopamine transporter is six times stronger than at the norepinephrine transporter and it is virtually inactive at the serotonin transporter. MDPV Powder remained an obscure stimulant until around 2004 when it was reportedly sold as a designer drug.
Until banned in 2011, products containing MDPV Powder and labeled as bath salts were sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing for Spice and K2 as incense.
The hydrochloride salt exists as a very fine crystalline powder; it is hygroscopic and thus tends to form clumps, resembling something like powdered sugar.
Its color can range from pure white to a yellowish-tan and has a slight odor that strengthens as it colors. Impurities are likely to consist of either pyrrolidine or alpha-dibrominated alkylphenones—respectively, from either excess pyrrolidine or incomplete amination during synthesis.
These impurities likely account for its discoloration and fishy (pyrrolidine) or bromine-like odor, which worsens upon exposure to air, moisture, or bases
MDPV Powder acts as a stimulant and has been reported to produce effects similar to those of cocaine, methylphenidate, and amphetamines.
The primary psychological effects have a duration of roughly 3 to 4 hours, with aftereffects such as tachycardia, hypertension, and mild stimulation lasting from 6 to 8 hours.
High doses have been observed to cause intense, prolonged panic attacks in stimulant-intolerant users, and there are anecdotal reports of psychosis from sleep withdrawal and addiction at higher doses or more frequent dosing intervals.
It has also been repeatedly noted to induce irresistible cravings to re-administer.
Reported modalities of intake include oral consumption, insufflation, smoking, rectal and intravenous use. It is supposedly active at 3–5 mg, with typical doses ranging between 5–20 mg.
When assayed in mice, repeated exposure to MDPV causes not only an anxiogenic effect but also increased aggressive behavior, a feature that has already been observed in humans. As with MDMA, MDPV also caused a faster adaptation to repeated social isolation.
A cross-sensitization between MDPV and cocaine has been evidenced. Furthermore, both psychostimulants, MDPV, and cocaine, restore drug-seeking behavior with respect to each other, although relapse into drug-taking is always more pronounced with the conditioning drug.
Moreover, memories associated with MDPV require more time to be extinguished. Also, in MDPV-treated mice, a priming dose of cocaine triggers significant neuroplasticity, implying a high vulnerability to its abuse.
The long-term effects of MDPV on humans have not been studied, but it has been reported that mice treated with MDPV during adolescence show reinforcing behavior patterns to cocaine that are higher than the control groups.
These behavioral changes are related to alterations of factor expression directly related to addiction. All this suggests an increased vulnerability to cocaine abuse.
MDPV Powder undergoes CYP450 2D6, 2C19, 1A2, and COMT phase 1 metabolism (liver) into methylcatechol and pyrrolidine, which in turn are glucuronated (uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyl-transferase) allowing it to be excreted by the kidneys, with only a small fraction.
No free pyrrolidine will be detected in the urine. Molecularly, this is seen as demethylenation of methylenedioxypyrovalerone (CYP2D6), followed by methylation of the aromatic ring via catechol-O-methyl transferase.
Hydroxylation of both the aromatic ring and side-chain then takes place, followed by oxidation of the pyrrolidine ring to the corresponding lactam, with subsequent detachment and ring-opening to the corresponding carboxylic acid.
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MDPV Powder may be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to provide evidence in a medicolegal death investigation.
Blood or plasma MDPV concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >50 μg/L in intoxicated patients, and >300 μg/L in victims of acute overdose.
In the UK, following the ACMD‘s report on substituted cathinone derivatives, MDPV is a Class B drug under The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010, making it illegal to sell, buy, or possess without a license.
MDPV is specifically listed as a controlled substance in Finland (listed appendix IV substance as of June 28, 2010), Denmark, and Sweden. Where to Buy MDPV
In Sweden, a 33-year-old man has been sentenced to six years in prison by an appellate court, Hovrätt, for possession of 250 grams of MDPV that had been acquired prior to criminalization. How to Buy MDPV